It is important to have eye exams regularly not only to determine an eyeglass or contact lens prescription but to also maintain the health of your eyes and check for diseases. Many tests are performed to during a comprehensive eye exam, such as:
Review of patient health, vision and family history
Visual acuity (measurement of the clarity or sharpness of a patient’s vision) of each eye individually and together.
Refraction to determine spectacle or contact lens prescription
Binocular vision assessment (ability to see using both eyes together) which measures eye coordination, depth perception, and eye movements.
Colour vision evaluation
Pupil reactions and peripheral vision testing to detect neurological, retinal and optic nerve issues.
Assessment of inside and outside eye health using the following techniques:
Slit lamp testing to examine the eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, lens, optic nerve and retina.
Tonometry to determine the pressure inside the eye. This allows the optometrist to assess for and monitor glaucoma.
Pupil dilation using eye drops to enlarge the pupils. This gives the optometrist a better view of the back of the eye (retina) and internal structures.
Additional testing may be necessary depending on the results of previous tests to confirm or rule out possible vision threatening eye diseases.
Pediatric Eye Exam (0 to 18 years old)
If childhood vision problems are left undetected and untreated, it can lead to learning difficulties that could affect children’s academics and social skills. Some eye conditions such as eye turns (strabismus), drooping eyelid (ptosis), congenital cataract, farsightedness (hyperopia), nearsightedness (myopia) & astigmatism can lead to permanent vision loss (lazy eye or amblyopia) in one or both eyes if not detected and managed at an early age.
Infants & Toddlers (Birth to 24 months): First exam between the ages of 6 and 9 months.
Preschool Children (2 to 5 years): One exam between the ages of 2 and 5 years.
School Age Children (6 to 19 years): One eye exam every year.
Adult Eye Examinations (20 to 64 years)
Even if a patient is seeing well there can be vision-threatening eye diseases present that have no early warning signs and symptoms. It is important to have regular eye examinations to maintain eye health and monitor for conditions such as presbyopia, cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration and retinal detachment.
Frequency of examinations may be more often than every 2 years if there are specific eye or systemic diseases being monitored such as cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetes and high blood pressure.
Frequency of examinations may be more often than every year if there are specific eye or systemic diseases being monitored such as cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetes and high blood pressure.
Visual Field Analysis
Visual field testing is used to assess central and peripheral vision. This test may be necessary to confirm, rule out or monitor possible vision threatening eye diseases (macular disease and glaucoma) and neurological disorders. The Ministry of Transportation may also request visual field testing to determine if provincial driving standards are being met.